On 14 December 2022 the lower house, Sejm, passed a bill on family foundations. The law was then sent to the Senate, where amendments were made to it, now pending before the Sejm. Regardless of these legislative works, it is expected that the law will come into force 3 months after its promulgation. It should therefore be possible to establish a family foundation as early as the first half of 2023.
In a recent case (C-61/21), contrary to settled case-law, the Court of Justice of the European Union did not oblige a Member State to pay compensation. Article 13 of the 2008/50/EC Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe obliges Member States to ensure that ambient air levels of NO2 and PM10 do not exceed EU-wide limit values. A resident in the Paris region considered that the French State had failed to ensure this and by this he has suffered damage to his health since 2003, caused by the deterioration of the ambient air quality in the Paris agglomeration. For these damages, he has claimed a total of EUR 21 million from the French State as compensation.
The rapid developments in the world of technology put the law into a difficult concept puzzle to follow. While the discussions on smart contracts made with blockchain technology have not yet ended, a new organization that can direct the life of business has taken its place in the international market; Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO). This mechanism offers people new democratized ways to operate their organizations, radically separated traditional institutions.
Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (“Competition Law”) applies to merger and acquisition transactions ("Transactions") since they may lead to consequences such as establishing/strengthening a dominant position or restricting effective competition in the market. Additionally, as per Communiqué No. 2010/4 Concerning the Mergers and Acquisitions Calling for the Authorization of the Competition Board ("Communiqué"), some Transactions are subject to the Competition Board's ("Board") approval. In this regard, the Turkish Competition Authority ("Authority") releases the Mergers and Acquisitions Overview Report each year to describe the overview of the Transactions examined within its body and thus provides a breakdown of the Transactions that took place in the market as along with a broad market overview. The Mergers and Acquisitions Report for 2022 ("Report") was published and made public by the Authority on January 6, 2023.
Under the Polish Medical Devices Act of 7 April 2022 (the MDA), surveillance over medical device advertising is exercised in principle by the President of the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products (the URPL), and in certain cases, by the Minister of Health or the Chief Sanitary Inspector.
Contributed by Guleryuz & Partners.
Contributed by MPR Partners.