26
Sun, Jun
49 New Articles

At Open Balkan Summit held in Tirana on December 21, 2021, several agreements were signed by Serbia, North Macedonia and Albania, including the Agreement on conditions for free access to the labour market in the Western Balkans, which was subsequently ratified by the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia on December 29, 2021, and published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia – International Agreements no. 27/2021 from December 30, 2021 (“the Agreement”).

Although it would appear that no fewer than 10 000 online platforms operate in the EU, the digital market seems to be moulded by just a handful of them. This raised concerns among the Authorities in terms of, among others, transparency and fair competition. The Digital Markets Act (DMA), together with the upcoming Digital Services Act (DSA), forms a central part of the package proposed by the Commission to address such concerns, setting up specific obligations for the digital giants, the so-called gatekeepers.

In today’s world, both globally and in Turkey, there are an increasing number of corporations that are in constant search of funding and investment either to grow a newly started promising business or to increase the profitability and efficiency of an already established business by moving it to the next level. In order to meet this need, there are also individuals or corporations, that is to say, investors, with the capital to provide the liquid injection in exchange for shareholding position or other certain benefits in the invested company.

The European Investment Bank (EIB) will support Hungarian green financing with long-term forint-denominated loans. The cooperation agreement, which was entered into this May and allows the EIB to provide more fixed-rate long-term loans in Hungarian forints to the local economy, aims to boost sustainable economic and social growth, the post-pandemic recovery and climate action in Hungary. It is the EIB's response to growing market demand for local currency lending in EU Member States that are not part of the euro area.

Data protection legislations generally aim to protect the fundamental privacy rights of natural persons, to have more control over their personal data and to grant more rights over this data belonging to them. In blockchain technology, data protection and confidentiality must be taken into account whenever personal data of real persons are processed. In accordance with GDPR and KVKK legislation, a natural or legal person must be responsible for the establishment and management of the data recording system.

The Hungarian Trade Union Confederation (Magyar Szakszervezeti Szövetség, “MASZSZ”) put together in a ten-point manifesto its long-standing demands accumulated over the past few years. The president of the Confederation announced the manifesto on 27 April 2022. As soon as possible after the formation of the new Hungarian government, the Confederation sends its manifesto to all decision-makers and the leaders of the parliamentary parties.

On March 14, 2022, the Turkish Competition Authority (“Authority”) published its much anticipated E-Commerce Platforms Sector Inquiry Final Report (“Report”). The Report is extensive in scope and it aims to present a snapshot of the market and provide policy recommendations to address the market failures detected by the Authority. In this article, however, the section on the most favored nation (“MFN”) clauses will be focused on and more particularly it will be discussed whether MFN clauses can be employed by digital platforms in the light of findings of the Report. Decisional practice of the Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) will also be under the spotlight to provide further colour.

In 2021, the green financial markets substantially increased according to the Green Finance Report of the Central Bank of Hungary (MNB). Credit institutions launched green lending, and four banks are taking advantage of the MNB's green capital requirement discount for housing. Among green financing products, the green bonds are very popular both at public and corporate level, and green lending has also been launched on the corporate side. In the investment segment, ESG products are already available, but only to a limited extent.

The global events and current energy crisis have demonstrated once again the imperative of continuous development of the energy sector and its modernization, which is both time-consuming and financially burdensome, but inevitable for the sustainability of the economy and overall society. It has additionally pointed out the real need for the equal or quasi-equal level of development of the electricity, gas and oil sector and increased dynamic development of the renewables energy market and, the imperative of having a firm orientation to diversification and establishment of different routes and different sources of supply. There is  a necessity of having a long-term strategic determination to stability and security of supply and national strategic plan to achieve it.

At the initiative of the Ministry of Justice, the Hungarian National Bank and the Hungarian Bar Association, the Government adopted a Government Decree in April 2022 regulating in detail the payment of lawyers' deposits at financial institutions in the event of liquidation and winding-up proceedings. The Government Decree provides that in the event of the winding-up and liquidation of a financial institution, the provisions of the Bankruptcy Act, the Company Registration Act, the Act on Credit Institutions and Financial Undertakings and the Investment Firm Act shall apply with the additions and derogations included in the Government Decree.

Considering the environmental, social, political and economic developments, it is considered as a more profitable and efficient way for companies located abroad to employ foreign nationals in Turkey. If certain conditions are met, it is possible to meet the demands of companies in this direction. Persons who will work in Turkey are required to obtain a "work permit" in accordance with the rules and criteria set by the International Labor Law No. 6735.

Viruses affecting human body have been the hot topic of most conversations for over two years. However, the digital world is not spared from “viruses” which affect other aspects of human lives. Multiple malwares used for cyber-attacks are created to damage, disrupt, hack, or block a device and encrypt or lock data and can cause enormous damage both in the private and public sector.

Our Latest Issue