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Banking & Finance in Albania

Banking & Finance in Albania

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Contributed by Kalo & Associates.

I. LEGAL FRAMEWORK

1.1. Which main legislative and regulatory provisions govern the banking sector in your jurisdiction?

The banking sector in Albania is governed by a comprehensive legislative package that includes both laws and regulations issued by the Bank of Albania (Regulatory Authority), the most important of which are listed below:

  • Law no. 8269, dated 23.12.1997 “On Bank of Albania”, as amended;
  • Law no. 9662, dated 18.12.2006 “On banks in the Republic of Albania”, as amended;
  • Law no. 133/2016 “On the recovery and resolution of banks in the Republic of Albania;
  • Law no. 133/2013 “On the payments system”;
  • Law no. 55/2020 “On the payments services”;
  • Regulation no. 14/2009 “On the licensing and performance of the activity by banks and branches of foreign banks in the Republic of Albania”, as amended;
  • Regulation 59/2008 “On the transparency of the financial and banking services”, as amended;
  • Regulation 67/2015 “On the internal audit system”, as amended;
  • Regulation 69/2014 “On the regulatory capital of the banks”, as amended;

1.2. Which bodies are responsible for enforcing the applicable laws and regulations? What are their main competencies? Please refer to the resolution authority as well.

The Bank of Albania is the regulatory body and as such is enforcing the applicable laws and regulations. Its main competencies are the following:

  • It issues licenses for banks, branches of foreign banks, and non-bank financial institutions exercising their activity in Albania.
  • It prepares and enacts the regulatory framework applicable to banks, branches of foreign banks, and non-bank financial institutions.
  • It approves and implements the monetary policy of the Republic of Albania.
  • It supervises and audits banks, branches of foreign banks, and non-bank financial institutions.
  • It acts as the resolution authority for banks licensed in Albania.

1.3. What are the current priorities of regulators and how does the regulator engage with the banking sector?

In the last year, the Bank of Albania has been focused on implementing the Payments Services Law (implementing PSD 2 in Albania) by issuing various Regulations.

The Bank of Albania’s most used instrument is the decisions of its Supervisory Board approving Regulations that are mandatory for all banks and non-banks financial institutions. In addition to the Regulations, the Bank of Albania may also issue Instructions and Advance Rulings (individual ruling).

II. AUTHORISATION

2.1. What licenses are required to provide banking services in your jurisdiction? What activities do they cover?

Pursuant to the Law on Banks, banking services may be conducted only upon receipt of a license as a bank, which is issued by the Bank of Albania as the regulatory body. Only banks may conduct banking activity which is defined as “the receipt of monetary deposits or other repayable funds from the public, and their use to grant credits or placement for its own account.” In addition to the above Banks in the Republic of Albania may provide the following financial services:

a. lending of all types including, inter alia, consumers credit, and mortgage;

b. factoring and financing of commercial transactions;

c. leasing;

d. all payments and money transferring services;

e. guarantees and commitments;

f. trading for own account or for the account of clients, whether on foreign exchange, in an over-the-counter market, or otherwise the following

(i) money market instruments (cheques, bills, certificates of deposits, etc.);

(ii) foreign exchange;

(iii) derivative products, including, but not limited to futures and options;

(iv) exchange rates and interest rate instruments including products such as swaps and forward agreements;

(v) transferable securities;

(vi) other negotiable instruments and financial assets including bullion;

(vii) participation in issues of all kinds of securities including, underwriting and placement as an agent (whether publicly or privately) and provision of services related to such issues;

g. money broking:

(i) asset management such as cash or portfolio management, fund management, custodial, depository, and trust services;

(ii) settlement and clearing services for financial assets, including securities, derivative products, and other negotiable instruments;

(iii) provision and transfer of financial information, financial data processing, and related software by providers of other financial services;

h. advisory, intermediation, and other auxiliary financial services of all activities listed in letters (a)-(f) above, including credit reference and analyses, investment and portfolio research and advice, advice on acquisitions, and on corporate restructuring and strategy.

i. issue and management of payment instruments, (such as credit, debit, and charge cards, travelers’ cheques, banker’s draft, and mobile phone payments), including the issue of electronic money.

2.2. What is the procedure for obtaining a banking license? How long does this typically take?

The procedure for obtaining a banking license is a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, the Bank of Albania issues its prior approval based on the documents submitted by the applicant such as documents on the identity of the shareholder(s), a detailed business plan, financial capabilities, etc. After receipt of the prior approval, the applicant should proceed with the incorporation of the entity, payment of the initial capital, recruitment of the staff, opening of the branches, etc. Once the above conditions are fulfilled, the Bank of Albania performs an inspection and only after it issues the final banking license.

2.3. Can a foreign bank operate in your jurisdiction on the basis of its domestic license?

No, passporting of the banking license is not allowed pursuant to the Albanian banking legislation.

2.4. What are the restrictions on ownership, including foreign ownership of banks?

There are no express restrictions on ownership of a bank, however, based on the documents to be submitted during the licensing process, it may be concluded that persons who have a criminal record, have caused the bankruptcy of another entity, or do not comply with the AML legislation cannot be a direct, or indirect shareholder of a bank in Albania.

2.5. What are the requirements for a proposed acquisition and acquirer of a qualified holding in a bank? Would the same requirements apply in the case of an increase of a qualifying holding?

In principle, the acquisition of a qualified holding in the bank (i.e., higher than 10%) is subject to the Bank of Albania’s prior approval. The set of documents is very similar to the one submitted during the initial licensing process and the procedure may last up to six months.

The same requirements do apply in case of an increase of a qualifying holding above 20%, 33%, and 50%.

III. REGULATORY CAPITAL AND LIQUIDITY

3.1. How are banks typically funded in your jurisdiction?

Banks are generally funded through clients’ deposits which means that financing from money markets is not broadly used. During the last few years, banks have started to raise capital also through the issuance of medium and long-term bonds which are privately offered to the investors (up to 100 investors) for the purposes of complying with the provisions of Bank of Albania Regulation no. 78/2020 “On the minimum requirements for regulatory capital instruments and eligible liabilities” (MREL) which was drafted in accordance with Directive 2019/879 (BRRD II) amending Directive 2014/59/EU and Regulation (EU) 2019/876 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019. Further to this Regulation, the Bank of Albania has drafted yearly methodological documents, to determine the way of calculation of the MREL, based on the EU SRB (Single Resolution Board), with the target level for MREL, to be reached within the transitional period, as defined in the relevant regulatory framework. Following the methodology for setting MREL and the final target level to be met up until 2027, for each individual bank, Bank of Albania sets the target and intermediate MREL levels for each individual bank.

3.2. What capital and own funds requirements apply to banks in your jurisdiction?

Each bank must monitor the adequacy of its capital using, among other measures, the rules and ratios established by the Bank of Albania, which ultimately determines the statutory capital required to underpin its business. The regulations “On the capital adequacy ratio”, the last amendment of which was made in December 2022, and “On the regulatory capital” are the main pieces of the regulatory framework that serves the purposes of calculating the capital.

The Capital Adequacy Ratio is the proportion of the regulatory capital to risk-weighted exposures, calculated as the sum of the risk-weighted exposure amounts, on- and off-balance sheet for credit risk and for credit counterparty risk, the capital requirement for market and operational risk. The extended capital requirement framework in Albania is generally based on international standards. This makes the risk assessment and the qualitative requirements for capital coverage for banks in the country, similar to banks operating outside Albania. Meanwhile, it may be seen that quantitative regulatory capital requirements in Albania are significantly higher than those defined by international standards. Just to mention, the minimum capital requirement in Albania is 12% versus the 8% ratio, defined by international standards; the leverage ratio in Albania is 5.75% from a 3% ratio by international standards.

The minimum Tier 1 Capital Ratio is 6% and the minimum Common Equity Tier 1 Ratio is 4. 5%.

3.3. Has your jurisdiction implemented the Basel III framework? Are there any major deviations?

In Albania, the capital adequacy framework is built upon the Basel Framework and the regulatory package of Directive 2013/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (CRD IV). This framework serves as a standard set of rules for central banks, or supervisory authorities, in the process of building the internal regulatory framework. Adoption of the international standards on capital and liquidity of Basel III and their implementing acts (regulation and directive on capital requirements) are being adopted on a consistent basis and are expected to be finalized within 2024. Such regulatory interventions aim at strengthening the banking sector’s resilience, to be in a rather good position for absorbing shocks. It also aims at urging banks to continue to finance economic activity and growth. In its capacity as the Resolution Authority, the Bank of Albania focuses continuously on strengthening the banking sector’s capacity to implement the resolution, as well as regularly updating the methodology for defining the minimum requirement

Capital indicators of Albanian second-tier banks as compared to capital adequacy requirements set by Basel III indicate that the capital adequacy ratios of banking institutions in Albania are in compliance with Basel III requirements and even significantly above minimum requirements.

IV. REPORTING, ORGANISATIONAL REQUIREMENTS, INTERNAL GOVERNANCE, AND RISK MANAGEMENT

4.1. What key reporting and disclosure requirements apply to banks in your jurisdiction?

As a general principle, the Albanian authorities uphold the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The Albanian accounting Law requires public interest entities (PIEs) and their regulators operating in the field of credit and insurance to prepare their financial statements following IFRS. Nevertheless, the Bank of Albania has deferred the implementation of IFRS by banks for regulatory purposes and still requires prudential reporting from the banking sector. Banking legislation requires banks to prepare their financial statements in accordance with the Financial Reporting Manual (FRM), which was based on the 1998 IFRS. Banks that are subsidiaries of international banks prepare an additional set of financial statements based on IFRS for their shareholders and public use.

Banks in Albania report pursuant to Regulation 45/2009 “On the reports at the Bank of Albania accordingly to the Unified Reporting System”, which sets out the rules, conditions, and terms of reporting from banks and foreign banks branches, non-bank financial entities, the savings and credit associations and their unions, and the rules for the management of these reports at the Bank of Albania. In accordance with this Regulation, the reports from banks and branches of foreign banks are made on a monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, and yearly basis.

For commercial banks, the reporting forms consist of:

(i) Second Tier Bank Reporting Forms – SRU which contain all applicable financial and accounting reporting standards;

(ii) the Consolidated Supervision Forms that include the consolidated balance sheets, profit and loss accounts, regulatory capital, currency positions, capital ratio, liquidity ratio, exposures, securities, etc.; and

(iii) Interest Rate Forms

4.2. What are the organizational requirements for banks, including with respect to corporate governance?

The legal framework for bank governance in Albania consists of Banking Law 9662/2006, Company Law 9901/2008, and Regulation 63/2012 “On the core management principles of banks and branches of foreign banks and the criteria on the approval of their administrators”.

The bodies of the bank are:

a) shareholders’ assembly;

b) the board of directors;

c) the Executive directorate;

d) the control committee.

The branch of the foreign bank is managed by the directorate. Its other governing bodies are the same as those of the foreign bank.

First and foremost, it is to be mentioned that Banks in Albania are established and organized as Joint Stock companies (JSC). Hence, they are subject to most Company Law provisions on corporate governance, even though their organization and governance are specifically regulated by Chapter III of the Banking Law. These pieces of legislation usually complement each other, even though in some cases they overlap. While corporate governance provisions in the Banking Law are motivated by financial stability concerns and the systemic importance of the banks for financial stability, Company Law provisions apply to banks merely as JSC. Therefore, in our view Company Law provisions should apply to banks only on issues for which Banking Law and relevant by-laws are silent or ambiguous. Therefore, the Banking Law should prevail in case of legal conflict for two main reasons: First, the Banking Law regulates a specific type of JSC, unlike the Company Law, thus the postulate lex specialis derogat legi generali should apply. Second, based on the systemic importance of banks, the Banking Law should prevail, based on the arguments of financial stability concerns and public interest.

Under Article 134 of the Company law, a Joint Stock Company established in Albania needs to have: a General Meeting of Shareholders and either a Supervisory Board, a Management Board (two-tier system), or an Administrative Board (one-tier system), depending on their company statutes.

Unlike general JSCs, banks are directed by a board of Directors and a directorate (senior management). They have no Supervisory Board. Article 35(1) of the Banking Law only provides for a one-tier structure for banks. Accordingly, the Board of Directors is both the decision-making (direction and management) and the supervisory (control) body. It delegates day-to-day management to one or more executive

Under Article 35(2) of the Banking Law, the Board of Directors should be composed of an odd number of individuals, between five and nine members. The Banking Law emphasizes the need for a board that is sufficiently separated from management in order to exercise objective decision-making, to ensure accountability, and provide strategic guidance to the management. Before the most recent amendment, Article 35(4) required at least one-third of board members to be outsiders (independent), i.e., persons not related through private interests to the bank itself, its shareholders, or its executive directors.

Article 37(2), e) of the Banking Law empowers the board with oversight of the audit function, which is key to shareholder and depositor confidence and the integrity of markets. Under Article 42, board members, as well as senior management, and the director of the audit unit shall be approved by the Bank of Albania. The requirements on the approval, revocation, dismissal, and removal of management are set forth under Regulation 63/2012 in addition to quality, experience, and independence of the board’s membership ability to perform its duties. Therefore, board members should possess the necessary qualifications, reputation, and expertise to enable effective governance and oversight. The qualifying criteria include a university or post-graduate degree as a general rule in law or economics, or, if not, at least five years of experience in the banking sector, a good reputation, and at least three years of experience in the financial sector, risk management in the financial markets, financial management, banking/financial supervision, business, auditing, legal or academic experience related to financial market economics or jurisprudence.

4.3. What are the local rules for loans to the management body and their related parties?

In accordance with Banking Law a related party is a party that has the ability to control the other party or exercise significant influence over the other party in making financial and operating decisions.

The Banking Law stipulates that the bank’s exposure to related parties cannot exceed 10% of its regulatory capital. When the related party or group of related parties is a parent bank, a subsidiary of the bank, or one or more subsidiaries of the parent company, the exposure cannot exceed 25% of the regulatory capital. The Bank must comply at all times with this restriction regarding its exposures. In case the exposures exceed the limits of the above, the bank immediately reports to the Bank of Albania, which then determines the measures necessary and the time to restore the exposures within the limitations of the above. In any case, the Board of Directors must grant a preliminary approval by a qualified majority of 2/3 of the votes of Board members, with respect to all actions of the bank related to transactions with related parties.

More generally speaking, the Company Law provides a further restriction by which a person who is both an administrator and a single member or shareholder of a company may not enter into a loan or guarantee contract with the company.

4.4. What are the main legal provisions governing risk management in the banking sector in your jurisdiction?

According to Albanian Banking Law and regulatory framework, the major risks for banks include credit, operational, market, systemic, liquidity risks, etc. Each of these risks are duly regulated with separate and dedicated Regulations by the Bank of Albania. Therefore, regulatory criteria have been set out, especially on capital requirements, the quality of the bank shareholders, the quality of the administrators, minimum regulatory capital requirement for credit, market and operational risk, credit risk assessment, consumer credit, on anti-money laundering, bank resolution, etc.

The main regulations adopted by the Bank of Albania in relation to risk management of the bank are listed below:

  • Regulation 27/2019 “On the liquidity coverage ratio”

The scope of this regulation is to determine the criteria and rules for calculating the liquidity coverage ratio and the minimum level of this ratio. Banks calculate the liquidity coverage ratio (RML) as the ratio of the bank’s liquidity reserve to net liquidity outflows over a 30-calendar-day stress period, expressed as a percentage, on an individual and consolidated basis.

  • Regulation 4/2017 “On consolidated supervision”

The scope of this regulation is to determine the conditions, rules, and regulatory requirements for the implementation of consolidated supervision, for the purposes of risk management arising from the banking group and the financial group.

  • Regulation 10/2014 “On risk management from large exposures of banks”

The scope of this regulation is to determine the rules and criteria for the calculation, supervision, and reporting of the bank’s large exposures to a person/client or group of persons/clients related to each other or to the bank, for the purpose of managing the risk arising from the exposure focused on them.

  • Regulation 48/2013 “On capital adequacy report”

The scope of this regulation is the establishment of the criteria and rules for calculating the capital adequacy ratio; and the determination of the minimum level of the capital adequacy ratio.

  • Regulation 67/2015 “On the internal control system”

The scope of this regulation is the determination of the rules for the organization, operation, and responsible structures of the internal control system of the bank and the branch of the foreign bank. The main responsible structures for the internal control system are a) the Board of Directors; b) the control committee; c) the executive directorate and every organizational unit in the bank that belongs to the first and second line of control; d) the internal control unit; e) special committees etc.

  • Regulation 69/2014 “On regulatory capital of the bank”

The scope of this regulation is to determine the structure, constituent elements, and method of calculating the bank’s regulatory capital and determining its minimum level.

  • Regulation 62/2011 “On credit risk management by banks and branches of foreign banks”

The scope of this regulation is: a) determining the rules for credit risk management in the activity of banks and branches of foreign banks; and b) determining the criteria for risk assessment and classification of loans and other assets, as well as the calculation of reserve funds to cover losses from their devaluation.

  • Regulation 3/2011 “On operational risk management”

The scope of this regulation is the determination of requirements and rules for operational risk management in banking and/or financial activity by the banks.

  • Regulation 48/2010 “On risk management from open currency positions”

The scope of this regulation is to determine the rules and criteria for the calculation, reporting, and supervision of the open currency positions of banks, in order to manage the exchange rate risk.

  • Regulation 71/2009 “On liquidity risk management”

The scope of this regulation is the determination of the minimum requirements and standards for the effective management of liquidity risk, by the banks and branches of foreign banks, which carry out banking and financial activities in the Republic of Albania.

  • Regulation 44/2009 “On the prevention of money laundering and financing of terrorism”

The scope of this regulation is the determination of the procedures and documentation for customer identification, the rules for registration, storage of data, and their reporting to the responsible authority by the banks. It aims to prevent the use of banks for money laundering and/or terrorist financing.

  • Regulation 72/2017 “On bank recovery plans”

The scope of this regulation is the establishment of supervisory requirements for the recovery plans of banks and banking groups, content of recovery plans and simplified recovery plans, the manner and deadline for their reporting and updating; the minimum framework of qualitative and quantitative indicators, which are included in the recovery plans; as well as the minimum criteria on which the assessment of the recovery plans is carried out by the Bank of Albania.

  • Regulation 57/2007 “On risk management in the activity of foreign bank branches”,

The scope of this regulation is the definition of the instruments that ensure the safe and stable exercise of the activity of the foreign branches of banks, the establishment of maximum exposure limits to some of the risks in the conduction of their activity, as well as determination of requirements and obligations on reports and verification documentation for the implementation of this regulation.

  • Regulation 70/2020 “On the net stable financing ratio of banks”, integrated version

The scope of this regulation is the determination of the criteria and rules for calculating the net stable financing ratio of banks and the minimum level of this ratio.

4.5. What are the legal requirements applicable to banks in combating money laundering and terrorist financing area?

Banks or financial institutions in the Republic of Albania are subject to Law no. 9917 dated 19.05.2008 “On the prevention of money laundering and terrorism financing” (AML Law) which provides general rules to be observed by specific natural or legal persons. Additionally, banks comply also with the AML Regulation of the Bank of Albania no. 44/2009 “On the prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing” as amended and Instruction no. 28, dated 31.12.2012, of the Albanian Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) “For reporting and action taking methods and procedures prevention from various entities including banks”.

Based on these regulatory acts, there are four key areas banks must address with their anti-money laundering compliance program:

  • Know Your Customer (KYC)
  • Customer due diligence (CDD)
  • Customer and transaction screening
  • Suspicious activity reporting

Know Your Customer (KYC) involves identifying and verifying a customer’s identity when they open a bank account. Mandatory for banks, KYC is the first critical step in an AML program. Additionally, all banks must take all the measures of “simplified CDD,” “standard CDD,” and “enhanced CDD” and implement the measures to identify and verify the permanent or occasional customers (natural persons, legal entities, and legal arrangements), in accordance with the requirements stipulated in the law. All banks must have in place policies, guidelines, or internal procedures on the acceptance, identification, recording, monitoring, risk management, and reporting of customers’ transactions.

After the KYC control process, banks apply risk assessment to their new customers. Customer information is checked and screened against several online databases, including politically exposed persons (PEPs), government records, watchlists, and sanctions screening.

Banks must report to the FIU as provided in the reporting forms and the terms set out in Instruction 28 of 2012 cited above, all transactions in cash equal or higher than ALL 1 million or the counter value in foreign currency (approximately USD 10,000), carried out as a sole transaction or as transactions related to each other within 24 hours. This includes verifying the origin of large sums of money and reporting cash transactions exceeding the USD 10,000 threshold.

With respect to the opening of bank accounts, the same can be opened even without the physical presence of the customer, upon the approval by the highest management level of the Bank, provided that after the combined risk assessment of the client, products, geographical distribution of services and distribution channels, the risk level for money laundering and terrorism financing results to be low.

In compliance with the EU Directive, banks are obliged to apply specific enhanced due diligence measures in relation to business relationships or transactions that include high-risk countries as per their assessment of the risk level.

More broadly, each bank is considered a reporting entity in Albania and as such is required to comply with the following:

  • Apply customer due diligence measures;
  • Build processes for identifying, measuring, monitoring, and mitigating risks arising from money laundering and financing terrorism in order to implement a risk-based approach. These processes should be supported by policies, procedures, dedicated structures, training, and control systems that effectively identify and manage risk exposure;
  • Implement adequate and appropriate AML/CFT systems including policies and procedures;
  • Continuously monitor the business relationship with the customer, based on the transactions profile, customers profile, and exposure against geographical risk.

There is an obligation to report to the FIU whenever the banks have a reasonable belief or suspect that the transaction required to be carried out by the client or another person may include proceeds of crime, or terrorism financing of funds deriving from criminal activity. This must be reported immediately to the FIU.

From an internal regulatory perspective, banks must have an effective AML compliance program that meets the regulatory requirements and manages money laundering risks. Failures in the AML compliance program can result in banks being punished by the Bank of Albania or FIU. AML compliance programs should consist of all controls and directives applied to ensure banks meet obligations and are protected against regulatory penalties. All banks must also have an AML compliance officer that provides oversight for the AML compliance program and acts as a liaison for the financial authorities. The AML compliance officer should be a senior employee with the expertise and authority to carry out their role effectively.

4.6. Are there any legal provisions regulating banking secrecy in your jurisdiction?

The Albanian Banking Law foresees and regulates banking secrecy in articles 91 and 125 of this law. Article 91 foresees the obligation of banks to protect their professional secrecy. In particular, the administrators, employees, actual as well as previous agents of the bank, judicial authorities, and the inspectors or other employees of the Bank of Albania or of other respective foreign authorities of banking supervision, must keep the secrecy for every information obtained during their term in the bank and not use it for personal profits or third parties outside the bank whom they serve or have served. Article 91 also stipulates that the information on customers may be made available only to the Bank of Albania, the statutory auditor of the bank or branch of the foreign bank, administrators, agents, and employees of every information system or official service stipulated in article 23 of the Law “On the Bank of Albania”, the liquidator appointed by Bank of Albania, juridical authorities whose right derives from the law, as well as when it is necessary for the protection of interests of the bank during legal proceedings. Additionally, the banking law also provides that all breaches of these provisions are to be considered misdemeanors and the persons who are guilty of such breaches may be punished by fine or imprisonment of up to two years.

On the other hand, Article 125 of the Banking Law sets forth that the bank or branch of the foreign bank maintains the confidentiality of information about the client and does not use it for their own benefit or for third parties whom they serve or have served.

However, there are some of limitations to the privacy of bank customers mainly related to money laundering. More specifically, as mentioned in Section 4.6., the AML law stipulates among others that any credit institution that may witness a doubtful transaction or delivery of payment concerning unlawful practice, is bound to bring it to the knowledge of the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) without any delay, which means the customer information must be surrendered regardless of the banking secrecy.

V. TRENDS

5.1. What are the main trends in the banking sector in your jurisdiction?

In recent years, the banking sector in Albania has been consolidated, going from 16 to 11 banks. Large commercial banks such as Societe Generale have left the market and have been replaced by local banks.

5.2. What are the biggest challenges in the banking sector at the moment?

Recent reports from international institutions are emphasizing the need for the banking sector to diversify its loan portfolio as it currently is overexposed to the real estate sector (approximately 40%). This is a big challenge for the whole banking sector.

Another challenge is the digitalization of banking services. Fintech companies have increased in Albania and are trying to service the unbanked or underbanked in Albania (approximately 50-60% of the population). In order not to lose their market share, banks should further increase the digitalization of their services.

5.3. What’s new in fintech?

In the past two years, we have seen a significant increase in the number of licensed e-money institutions in Albania. The main reason has been the implementation of the Payments Services Law (which transposes PSD 2 in Albania) and the open banking principle. As the law has not been fully implemented yet, we expect the trend to continue. As a result, banks are trying to compete in this segment as well and have heavily invested in electronic systems and internet solutions.

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Guide Contributors For Albania

Aigest Milo

Co – Managing Partner

a.milo@kalo-attorneys.com

+355 4 2233 532

 

Olsi Coku

Special Counsel

o.coku@kalo-attorneys.com

+355 4 2233 532