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The legator has the authority to freely dispose of their assets in their lifetime. However, Turkish Civil Code secures the inheritance rights of some heirs and protects the inheritance shares at certain rates. Heirs whose inheritance rights are protected are defined as “heirs with statutory entitlement” in the Turkish Civil Code.

Over the last decade, granting employees stock option rights for acquiring shares in the employer company has become a growing trend among companies operating in the technology sector, particularly in start-up companies. In this respect, companies favour "Employee Stock Option Plans" enabling employees to acquire a certain amount of shares in the company and conclude "Stock Option Agreements" with the employees for this purpose. In this article, the concept of stock options and various stock option plans will be discussed along with their implementation under Turkish law and in other jurisdictions.

All countries have had to deal with the intensifying effects of climate change in recent years. As a direct response, we are in the process of moving toward a low-carbon future. The Paris Agreement and the EU’s Green Deal have already urged all sectors to take measures to reduce carbon emission levels, and the energy transition movement is rapidly growing. COVID-19 has also hastened this global movement.

The Turkish Government, in its statement at the United Nations General Assembly, had given signals beforehand that it would submit the Paris Climate Agreement [“Paris Agreement” or “Agreement”], for parliamentary approval which it signed on April 22, 2016. Following his statement, the Agreement entered into force with the Law on Approval of the Paris Agreement and the Presidential Decision, both published on the same day, on 7.10.2021 in the Official Gazette. Please see our previous article about the content and purpose of the Paris Agreement.

Distribution of assets sometimes leads to disputes between heirs and cause undesirable consequences. In this respect, many people prefer to decide how their estate will be distributed by making testamentary dispositions while they are still alive. Hence, in order to eliminate possible conflicts between heirs or for other reasons, individuals may choose to plan their estate prior to their death, based on personal wishes. Today, more people than ever prioritize estate planning.

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