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Ukraine confidently declared its intention to bring its legislation into line with EU standards by signing the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement in 2014, which obliges Ukraine to implement a number of EU Directives, including those regulating various aspects of corporate governance.

In 2016-2017 Ukrainian authorities introduced many important legislative changes in the energy sector in line with the country’s commitment to implementing the Third Energy Package as a member of the Energy Community and as a party to the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement. 

The growing interdependence of world economies, driven by the reduction and removal of trade barriers, cheaper transport and communication costs, and increased use of the Internet (facilitating easier access to foreign markets), as well as by the growth of multinational corporations, has resulted in unprecedented cross-border trade and capital flows. At the same time, it has also opened up new opportunities for multinationals to reduce their profit in high-taxed jurisdictions by exploiting gaps and mismatches in domestic and international tax rules to artificially shift it to low-taxed countries (or tax havens).

After a period of political and economic instability which put M&A transactions in Ukraine into a dormant mode, the country is starting to show signs of revival. As the economy recovers and new legislation aimed at strengthening the rule of law and simplifying doing business is adopted, investors are again looking towards Ukraine with interest. 

In Latvian Case SKC-176/2017, lessor Swedbank Leasing resold the lease objects to another buyer after lessee Mednis had made full payment, such that, according to the judgment of the arbitration court, at the moment the objects were resold the lessee was not in debt to the lessor.

So far, 2017 has been a very challenging year for dispute resolution in Slovakia, as several new laws changing the current approach to court proceedings and arbitration have entered into force. Practitioners as well as the courts need, therefore, to balance the old rules (which are to some extent still applicable to ongoing proceedings) with the new rules.   

On February 1, 2016, the Amendment to Act No. 634/1992 Coll., on Consumer Protection (the “Amendment”) entered into force, implementing European Union directive No. 2013/11/EU on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes, which requires the member states of the European Union to ensure that consumers have access to a simple, efficient, fast, and low-cost way of resolving disputes arising from sales or service contracts.

The Parties’ Positions

In state court proceedings, Claimant requested indemnity pursuant to Section 24 of the Austrian Commercial Agents Act, basing the Austrian court’s jurisdiction on Section 99 of the Law on Court Jurisdiction, pursuant to which a person who does not have a forum generale in Austria may nevertheless be sued in Austrian courts if he or she has assets within the district of an Austrian court. Claimant argued that Respondent had assets in Austria as it had an outstanding claim against it.

The most recent amendment to the Slovenian Civil Procedure Act (Zakon o pravdnem postopku, or “ZPP”) was issued in February 2017, with the amendments set to apply from September 14, 2017. 

The Hungarian Parliament has recently adopted three new procedural laws: Act CXXX of 2016 on the Code of Civil Procedure (“CCP”), Act I of 2017 on the Code of Administrative Litigation (“CAL”), and Act CL of 2016 on Administrative Proceedings, which will all enter into effect on January 1, 2018. These new procedural laws come on the heels of the recodification of many substantive laws such as the Civil Code and the Criminal Code. This article aims to give a brief overview of these new procedural laws.

The Russian annexation of Crimea in March 2014 and subsequent military actions in Eastern Ukraine left Ukraine reeling. It took a while for the country to develop a strategy and institute its first arbitration and court actions against the Russian Federation. These first legal challenges are now bearing fruit, as several landmark decisions have recently been delivered by major international dispute resolution venues.

This article has been drafted to follow-up to the 2016 Comparative Report on Minor Disputes, which was drafted by the World Bank in cooperation with the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The latest amendments to the Civil Procedure Code of Albania (CPC) which will enter into force in November 2017 are designed to increase the efficiency and performance of the country’s judicial system.

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