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Under the GDPR, every data controller that processes personal data through a data processor must conclude a GDPR-compliant data processing agreement with the processor. Parties may seek to negotiate the allocation of liability and shift it towards the other party. When doing this in Romania, we look at the interplay with the rules of the main forms of liability set out in the law.

Gun jumping refers to premature enforcement of a merger before obtaining clearance from the competition authority. While most companies are aware of this interdiction, it can be difficult to balance the scope of the competition standstill obligation during the pre-closing period and the measures taken by the acquiring company to protect the value of a target.

The Hungarian Competition Authority (HCA) cleared the acquisition of sole control over Invitel Távközlési Zrt ("Invitel") by Digi Távközlési és Szolgáltató Kft ("DIGI") conditionally - with commitments - in May 2018. A few months later, it established that DIGI had intentionally misled HCA officials and therefore revoked the decision and imposed a fine on DIGI of HUF 90 million (approx. EUR 280,000). It then reopened the proceeding to assess the relevant markets affected by the misleading information. Revoking a merger clearance decision is not without precedent in the HCA's recent practice, as the HCA has invoked three clearance decisions in the last two years. What is new, however, is that the HCA granted a derogation from the suspension clause to prevent negative market consequences from interfering with the already closed transaction. The HCA also resorted to a dawn raid during the original proceeding, which is a new instrument in merger control cases.

Exactly four months ago, we reported that the Austrian pastry shop Aida was starting to sell cakes containing CBD and explained the legal situation. In the meantime, everything has changed. Or has it?

The most recent article in our Efficient Arbitration Series looked at how document production, when handled properly, could save time and costs in arbitration proceedings. In this article, we continue to add tools to our efficiency box by considering a new set of procedural rules that will soon become available: The Prague Rules on the Efficient Conduct of Proceedings in International Arbitration ("Prague Rules").

With uncertainties surrounding a "no deal" Brexit meanwhile culminating in fears of a "super hard" Brexit, financial institutions in the UK, the EU27 and beyond are eager in search of solutions that preserve continuity of contracts and that contain the numerous legal and regulatory risks for institutions on both sides of the Channel.

Factoring is an increasingly popular product of banks that appeals to corporate clients of whatever size as it provides liquidity to the clients and stable cash flow.  The factoring is usually structures in a way that the vendors of the client do not receive information on the factoring, the bank stays in the background; the relationship between the client and its vendor remains intact.  In practice, this means that the client continues to collect the amounts the vendor owes, although such amounts do not belong to the client anymore.  Also, it is not uncommon that even the soft workout stage stays with the client in case the vendor is in delay with its payment obligation; i.e. the client will be obliged to chase its vendor for the money.

In October 2018 the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) granted Produkcija Plus doo (Pro Plus) €52,500 in compensation after its right to be heard was violated in the proceedings relating to the fine imposed for obstructing the dawn raid.

The Hungarian Competition Authority (HCA) recently published a strategy paper presenting its views on consumer protection in the digital age. The paper subtly indicates that the HCA will continue to follow the European Commission's guidance in this regard. The paper highlights the measures which the HCA deems necessary to protect consumers and keep up with the developments and companies central to this process.

As in all EU member states, the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) came into effect in Austria on 25 May 2018. The centrepiece of Austria's GDPR implementing legislation was the Data Protection Amendment Act 2018 (for further details please see "Draft Data Protection Amendment Act 2018 in appraisal" and "Proposals to alter national Data Protection Act").

Trademark owners and unconventional trademark enthusiasts should pay close attention to a new amendment to the Czech Act on Trademarks, which is expected to come into force on 1 January 2019. The new law implementing the EU's Trademark Directive 2015/2436 will enable registration of marks that are identical with an earlier trademark. This may prove upsetting for unwary trademark owners. At the same time, the new legislation might inspire greater creativity, as it will open doors for non-traditional trademarks.

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