Significant amendments were introduced to the Communiqué of the Competition Authority on Mergers and Acquisitions Requiring Authorization of the Turkish Competition Board, numbered 2010/4, with the Communiqué published in the Official Gazette on March 4, 2022. In this respect, while the turnover thresholds taken into account in mergers and acquisitions to determine whether Competition Board’s approval is necessary are increased, exceptional rules are adopted in relation to transactions involving technology companies. These amendments will become effective two months after their publication, i.e., as of May 4, 2022.
In November 2021, the Green Debt Instrument and the Green Lease Certificate Guidelines Draft [the “Draft Guide”] was submitted to the public opinion. The draft was approved and published with the Principal Decision of the Turkey’s Capital Markets Board [“CMB”] dated February 24, 2022 and numbered 10/296, with some revisions made as per the comments by the market actors.
Succession is essentially the passing of the legator's personal assets during their lifetime to the estate, subject to joint ownership upon the legator’s death, and then to individual heirs. Prior to the death of the legator, the legator preserves all of their property rights, while the future heirs do not attain heirdom, let alone any rights on legator’s property. The titles of legator and heir are gained only upon the death of a person, and from then on, the heirs are entitled to the inheritance. For this reason, the most contentious aspects of inheritance law are succession, which is the transfer of the inheritance and possible interventions to the heirs’ inheritance shares.
Following the launch of a military operation against Ukraine by the Russian Federation; EU, US, UK and several other countries began imposing broad economic sanctions against Russia. Another recent and critical sanctions is the European Council’s decision and regulation of March 2, 2022, which removes 7 Russian banks from the SWIFT system.
An intermediary service provider is defined in Law No. 6563 on the Regulation of Electronic Commerce ["E-Commerce Law"] as "natural or legal persons that provide an electronic environment where others can conduct financial and commercial activities.” Electronic commerce platforms such as n11, Trendyol, GittiGidiyor, and Amazon, which are among the most important actors of electronic commerce today, are included in this definition under our legislation. In essence, these platforms mediate the contract's conclusion and performance by bringing buyers and sellers together via the internet. In this article, the liabilities of e-commerce actors as "intermediary service providers" will be discussed in light of recent Court of Cassation decisions.
Pursuant to the Protocol No. 15 amending the European Convention on Human Rights ["ECHR / Convention"], the time-limit for the application to the European Court of Human Rights ["ECtHR"] was reduced from 6 months to 4 months, effective as of February 1, 2022. Accordingly, once remedies available as per domestic laws are exhausted, the application should be filed with the ECtHR within 4 months following the final court judgment. Having said that if the court decision was adopted before February 1, 2022, the ECtHR application based on this decision will still be subject to 6-month time-limit.
“Regulation on the Principles of the Asset, Right and Receivable Inquiry on the National Judiciary Informatics System” [“Regulation”] was published in the Official Gazette dated January 22, 2022 and entered into force on the same date. The Regulation basically sets forth the procedures and principles regarding the inquiry of the debtor's assets, rights and receivables via the information systems integrated into the National Judiciary Informatics System [the so-called "UYAP"].
Purchase price is invariably among the most contentious points during the negotiation phase of an M&A transaction. Especially in cross-border transactions, the buyer may wish to minimise risks by opting for alternative payment methods. One is these methods is “earn-out,” where a part of purchase price will be calculated by reference to the future financial performance of the target company. Statistics pertaining to the year of 2020, indicate that earn-out clauses were used in around 27% of the acquisitions concluded in the United States. Also, earn-out clauses are frequently being used in share purchase agreements concluded in Europe. This is especially the case in deals involving start-up companies, where the uncertainty increases on the factors of target company's future performance and the buyer does not have any in-depth market experience.
Since the President's speech on December 20, 2021, "FX-Protected Deposit Accounts" have been at the forefront of talks on banking and finance applications. The instrument, of which the legal foundations were laid with Communiqué No. 2021/14 on Supporting the Conversion of Turkish Lira Deposit and Participation Accounts ["Communiqué"] published in the Official Gazette immediately following the speech, on December 21, 2021, found an ever-expanding field of application with amendments adopted in the following days and finally took its final form. In this article, we will examine FX-protected deposit accounts with their legal basis.
Many economies, particularly those in the European Union [“EU”], are now centered on the environment-oriented and sustainable economy model known as "Green Transformation," which aims to mitigate the negative environmental consequences of human-induced parameters on the ecosystem. Turkey, also, had signaled that it would not stay out of this shift by ratifying the Paris Climate Agreement in October 2021.
Law No. 805 on Compulsory Use of Turkish Language in Economic Institutions ["Law No. 805"] has been in effect for very long time, i.e., since April 22, 1926. Even though it is an old regulation with only 9 articles, it has sparked debate regarding international contracts over the years, particularly in the field of arbitration, and it has even become a roadblock in our legal system regarding the validity of contracts.
While inheritance is considered an extension and an aspect of the property right, a person may be deprived of this right due to their own consent or in some cases, unlawful actions. These possibilities are regulated by Turkish law under the titles of disinheritance, successional indignity, renunciation of inheritance, and the right to disclaim.
The Code on Amending the Bankruptcy and Enforcement Code and Some Other Laws ["Amendment Law"] No. 7343 was adopted on November 24, 2021 and entered into force after being published in the Official Gazette No. 31675 on November 30, 2021. In this article, we will explain the critical changes brought by the Amendment Law.
Under Turkish law, data controllers must be registered with the so-called “VERBIS” registration system before processing any personal data. The Turkish Personal Data Protection Authority announced December 31, 2021 as the final deadline for fulling this registration obligation pursuant to the Personal Data Protection Law No. 6698 and the Regulation on Data Controllers Registry. The deadline is fast approaching.
E-Hearing System is a system that enables participation in hearings held in civil courts remotely. In this regard, the fundamental rules on this new system, which saves time and labor both for lawyers and other relevant persons while facilitating access to justice services, were previously elaborated in one of our articles. In a relatively short time after the promulgation of the Regulation on the Conduct of Hearings by Audio and Video Transmission in Civil Procedures [“Regulation”] which sets the e-Hearing procedures and principles in the Official Gazette dated June 30, 2021 e-Hearings have become widespread rapidly.